我的python多线程和多进程

poqweur 等级 95 0 0

伪并发 异步和多路复用IO

线程存在空闲 from multiprocessing.dummy import Pool
from multiprocessing.dummy import Pool as ThreadPool
  pool = ThreadPool(20)
            pool.map(job_worker, result_cursor)
            pool.close()
            pool.join()
"""
可以实现并发
但是,请求发送出去后和返回之前,中间时期线程空闲
编写方式:
    - 直接返回处理
    - 通过回调函数处理
"""
########### 编写方式一 ###########
"""
from concurrent.futures import ThreadPoolExecutor
import requests
import time

def task(url):
    response = requests.get(url)
    print(url,response)
    # 写正则表达式


pool = ThreadPoolExecutor(7)
url_list = [
    'http://www.cnblogs.com/wupeiqi',
    'http://huaban.com/favorite/beauty/',
    'http://www.bing.com',
    'http://www.zhihu.com',
    'http://www.sina.com',
    'http://www.baidu.com',
    'http://www.autohome.com.cn',
]
for url in url_list:
    pool.submit(task,url)

pool.shutdown(wait=True)
"""
效果相同,增加会掉函数
########### 编写方式二 ###########
from concurrent.futures import ThreadPoolExecutor
import requests
import time

def task(url):
    """
    下载页面
    :param url:
    :return:
    """
    response = requests.get(url)
    return response

def done(future,*args,**kwargs):
    response = future.result()
    print(response.status_code,response.content)

pool = ThreadPoolExecutor(7)
url_list = [
    'http://www.cnblogs.com/wupeiqi',
    'http://huaban.com/favorite/beauty/',
    'http://www.bing.com',
    'http://www.zhihu.com',
    'http://www.sina.com',
    'http://www.baidu.com',
    'http://www.autohome.com.cn',
]
for url in url_list:
    v = pool.submit(task,url)
    v.add_done_callback(done)

pool.shutdown(wait=True)
多进程实现并发
"""
可以实现并发
但是,请求发送出去后和返回之前,中间时期进程空闲
编写方式:
    - 直接返回处理
    - 通过回调函数处理
"""

########### 编写方式一 ###########
"""
from concurrent.futures import ProcessPoolExecutor
import requests
import time

def task(url):
    response = requests.get(url)
    print(url,response)
    # 写正则表达式


pool = ProcessPoolExecutor(7)
url_list = [
    'http://www.cnblogs.com/wupeiqi',
    'http://huaban.com/favorite/beauty/',
    'http://www.bing.com',
    'http://www.zhihu.com',
    'http://www.sina.com',
    'http://www.baidu.com',
    'http://www.autohome.com.cn',
]
for url in url_list:
    pool.submit(task,url)

pool.shutdown(wait=True)
"""

########### 编写方式二 ###########
from concurrent.futures import ProcessPoolExecutor
import requests
import time

def task(url):
    response = requests.get(url)
    return response

def done(future,*args,**kwargs):
    response = future.result()
    print(response.status_code,response.content)

pool = ProcessPoolExecutor(7)
url_list = [
    'http://www.cnblogs.com/wupeiqi',
    'http://huaban.com/favorite/beauty/',
    'http://www.bing.com',
    'http://www.zhihu.com',
    'http://www.sina.com',
    'http://www.baidu.com',
    'http://www.autohome.com.cn',
]
for url in url_list:
    v = pool.submit(task,url)
    v.add_done_callback(done)

pool.shutdown(wait=True)
异步IO(多线程+协程)
# 协程只是切换,不能控制什么时候切回来,异步IO实现回调
角色:使用者
    - 多线程
    - 多线程
    - 协程(微线程) + 异步IO =》 1个线程发送N个Http请求
        - asyncio
            - 示例1:asyncio.sleep(5)
            - 示例2:自己封装Http数据包
            - 示例3:asyncio+aiohttp
                aiohttp模块:封装Http数据包 pip3 install aiohttp
            - 示例4:asyncio+requests
                requests模块:封装Http数据包 pip3 install requests
        - gevent(内部异步IO+切换),greenlet+异步IO
                pip3 install greenlet
                pip3 install gevent
            - 示例1:gevent+requests
            - 示例2:gevent(协程池,最多发多少个请求)+requests
            - 示例3:gevent+requests => grequests
                    pip3 install grequests

        - Twisted
            pip3 install twisted
        - Tornado
            pip3 install tornado

        =====> gevent > Twisted > Tornado > asyncio
异步IO
import asyncio


@asyncio.coroutine
def func1():
    print('before...func1......')
    yield from asyncio.sleep(5)
    print('end...func1......')


tasks = [func1(), func1()]

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.gather(*tasks))
loop.close()
异步IO实现tcp发http
import asyncio


@asyncio.coroutine
def wget(host):
    print('wget %s...' % host)
    reader, writer = yield from asyncio.open_connection(host, 80)
    header = 'GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: %s\r\n\r\n' % host
    writer.write(header.encode('utf-8'))
    yield from writer.drain()
    while True:
        line = yield from reader.readline()
        if line == b'\r\n':
            break
        print('%s header > %s' % (host, line.decode('utf-8').rstrip()))
    # Ignore the body, close the socket
    writer.close()


loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
tasks = [wget(host) for host in ['www.sina.com.cn', 'www.sohu.com', 'www.163.com']]
loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.wait(tasks))
loop.close()
异步IO实现发http
import aiohttp
import asyncio


@asyncio.coroutine
def fetch_async(url):
    print(url)
    response = yield from aiohttp.request('GET', url)
    print(url, response)
    response.close()


tasks = [fetch_async('http://www.baidu.com/'), fetch_async('http://www.chouti.com/')]

event_loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
results = event_loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.gather(*tasks))
event_loop.close()
异步IO + requests
import asyncio
import requests


@asyncio.coroutine
def fetch_async(func, *args):
    loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
    future = loop.run_in_executor(None, func, *args)
    response = yield from future
    print(response.url, response.content)


tasks = [
    fetch_async(requests.get, 'http://www.cnblogs.com/wupeiqi/'),
    fetch_async(requests.get, 'http://dig.chouti.com/pic/show?nid=4073644713430508&lid=10273091')
]

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
results = loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.gather(*tasks))
loop.close()
gevent + requests
import gevent

import requests
from gevent import monkey

monkey.patch_all()


def fetch_async(method, url, req_kwargs):
    print(method, url, req_kwargs)
    response = requests.request(method=method, url=url, **req_kwargs)
    print(response.url, response.content)

# ##### 发送请求 #####
gevent.joinall([
    gevent.spawn(fetch_async, method='get', url='https://www.python.org/', req_kwargs={}),
    gevent.spawn(fetch_async, method='get', url='https://www.yahoo.com/', req_kwargs={}),
    gevent.spawn(fetch_async, method='get', url='https://github.com/', req_kwargs={}),
])

# ##### 发送请求(协程池控制最大协程数量) #####
# from gevent.pool import Pool
# pool = Pool(None)
# gevent.joinall([
#     pool.spawn(fetch_async, method='get', url='https://www.python.org/', req_kwargs={}),
#     pool.spawn(fetch_async, method='get', url='https://www.yahoo.com/', req_kwargs={}),
#     pool.spawn(fetch_async, method='get', url='https://www.github.com/', req_kwargs={}),
# ])
封装gevent + requests
import grequests


request_list = [
    grequests.get('http://httpbin.org/delay/1', timeout=0.001),
    grequests.get('http://fakedomain/'),
    grequests.get('http://httpbin.org/status/500')
]


# ##### 执行并获取响应列表 #####
# response_list = grequests.map(request_list)
# print(response_list)


# ##### 执行并获取响应列表(处理异常) #####
# def exception_handler(request, exception):
# print(request,exception)
#     print("Request failed")

# response_list = grequests.map(request_list, exception_handler=exception_handler)
# print(response_list)
twisted
from twisted.internet import defer
from twisted.web.client import getPage
from twisted.internet import reactor


def one_done(arg):
    print('----------------------------------------------- %s' % arg)


def all_done(arg):
    print('done===========================================')
    reactor.stop()


@defer.inlineCallbacks  # 发送Http请求,立即返回
def task(url):
    res = getPage(bytes(url, encoding='utf8'))  # 发送Http请求
    res.addCallback(one_done)
    yield res


url_list = [
    'http://www.cnblogs.com',
    'http://www.cnblogs.com',
    'http://www.cnblogs.com',
    'http://www.cnblogs.com',
]

defer_list = []  # [特殊,特殊,特殊(已经向url发送请求)]
for url in url_list:
    v = task(url)
    defer_list.append(v)

d = defer.DeferredList(defer_list)
d.addBoth(all_done)  # d特殊对象里有特殊url发送列表

reactor.run()  # 死循环 DeferredList查询,检测完成对象执行one_done,有计数器,所有执行完,执行all_done
tornado
from tornado.httpclient import AsyncHTTPClient
from tornado.httpclient import HTTPRequest
from tornado import ioloop

COUNT = 0
def handle_response(response):
    global COUNT
    COUNT -= 1
    if response.error:
        print("Error:", response.error)
    else:
        print(response.body)
        # 方法同twisted
        # ioloop.IOLoop.current().stop()
    if COUNT == 0:
        ioloop.IOLoop.current().stop()

def func():
    url_list = [
        'http://www.baidu.com',
        'http://www.bing.com',
    ]
    global COUNT
    COUNT = len(url_list)
    for url in url_list:
        print(url)
        http_client = AsyncHTTPClient()
        http_client.fetch(HTTPRequest(url), handle_response)


ioloop.IOLoop.current().add_callback(func)
ioloop.IOLoop.current().start() # 死循环
自己实现IO
角色:NB开发者

    1. socket客户端、服务端
        连接阻塞
        setblocking(0): 无数据(连接无响应;数据未返回)就报错  传0或者false所有socket都不会阻塞(包括连接和接收)

    2. IO多路复用 就是while循环监听多个socket对象
        客户端:
        try:
            socket对象1.connet()
            socket对象2.connet()
            socket对象3.connet()
        except Ex..
            pass

        while True:
            r(接收端),w(发送端),e(异常) = select.select([socket对象1,socket对象2,socket对象3,],[socket对象1,socket对象2,socket对象3,],[],0.05)
            r = [socket对象1,] # 表示有人给我发送数据
                xx = socket对象1.recv()
            w = [socket对象1,] # 表示我已经和别人创建连接成功:
                socket对象1.send('"""GET /index HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: baidu.com\r\n\r\n"""')


    3. 
        class Foo:

            def fileno(self):
                obj = socket()
                return obj.fileno()

        r,w,e = select.select([socket对象?,对象?,对象?,Foo()],[],[])
        # 对象必须有: fileno方法,并返回一个文件描述符

        ========
        a. select内部:对象.fileno()
        b. Foo()内部封装socket文件描述符

 IO多路复用: 就是while循环监听多个socket对象
 异步IO: 非阻塞的socket+IO多路复用
自己实现异步IO
class HttpRequest:
    def __init__(self, sk, host, callback):
        self.socket = sk
        self.host = host
        self.callback = callback

    def fileno(self):
        return self.socket.fileno()


class HttpResponse:
    def __init__(self, recv_data):
        self.recv_data = recv_data
        self.header_dict = {}
        self.body = None

        self.initialize()

    def initialize(self):
        headers, body = self.recv_data.split(b'\r\n\r\n', 1)
        self.body = body
        header_list = headers.split(b'\r\n')
        for h in header_list:
            h_str = str(h, encoding='utf-8')
            v = h_str.split(':', 1)
            if len(v) == 2:
                self.header_dict[v[0]] = v[1]


class AsyncRequest:
    def __init__(self):
        self.conn = []
        self.connection = []  # 用于检测是否已经连接成功

    def add_request(self, host, callback):
        try:
            sk = socket.socket()
            sk.setblocking(0)
            sk.connect((host, 80,))
        except BlockingIOError as e:
            pass
        request = HttpRequest(sk, host, callback)
        self.conn.append(request)
        self.connection.append(request)

    def run(self):

        while True:
            rlist, wlist, elist = select.select(self.conn, self.connection, self.conn, 0.05)
            for w in wlist:
                print(w.host, '连接成功...')
                # 只要能循环到,表示socket和服务器端已经连接成功
                tpl = "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost:%s\r\n\r\n" % (w.host,)
                w.socket.send(bytes(tpl, encoding='utf-8'))
                self.connection.remove(w)
            for r in rlist:
                # r,是HttpRequest
                recv_data = bytes()
                while True:
                    try:
                        chunck = r.socket.recv(8096)
                        recv_data += chunck
                    except Exception as e:
                        break
                response = HttpResponse(recv_data)
                r.callback(response)
                r.socket.close()
                self.conn.remove(r)
            if len(self.conn) == 0:
                break


def f1(response):
    print('保存到文件', response.header_dict)


def f2(response):
    print('保存到数据库', response.header_dict)


url_list = [
    {'host': 'www.baidu.com', 'callback': f1},
    {'host': 'cn.bing.com', 'callback': f2},
    {'host': 'www.cnblogs.com', 'callback': f2},
]

req = AsyncRequest()
for item in url_list:
    req.add_request(item['host'], item['callback'])

req.run()
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